In June 2007, 2012 and 2014 Julian McGlashan and Cathrine Sadolin performed endoscopy studies and endoscopy/high speed studies in 2012 and 2014 at CVI in Copenhagen.
Twenty-one singers (ten males and eleven females) in 2007, thirteen singers (seven male and six females) in 2012, and sixteen singers (seven males and nine females) in 2014, a total of 32 singers (fifteen male and seventeen females), trained in the Complete Vocal Technique were recruited and asked to produce a sustained vowel in each of the four modes and then adding arytenoid rattle to that that mode. Subsequently they were asked to alternate between the ‘clear’ mode and the mode with arytenoid rattle.
10 subjects had pictures that we could analyse for this particular study, so the rest were excluded as they could either not tolerate the examination, did not perform the arytenoid rattle correctly, or the image quality was not adequate for interpretation.
Each singer was examined using an OTVS7 camera (Olympus) and ENFV2 videoscope (Keymed) coupled to the Laryngostrobe (Laryngograph) digital capture system. Laryngograph electrodes were positioned over the thyroid cartilages and an omnidirectional microphone placed at distance from the singer which allowed recordings at all levels of loudness. Also the ELG and acoustic signals were captured and analysed with the Speech Studio (Laryngograph) software program.
Each set of modes (with and without arytenoid rattle) video images were analysed by Julian McGlashan and Cathrine Sadolin and the appearance and relationship between the key anatomical features was agreed by consensus and documented. The consistent features were identified and descriptive and explanatory text to aid pattern recognition.
The Laryngeal gestures are more to be seen as patterns of progression from mode to mode, rather than aboslutes. The progession in the patterns can be used as guidelines on how to identify the modes within each singer.
For the arytenoid rattle these are the parameters we looked at: the shape of the glottis, the position of the false cords, the anterior posterior narrowing, the shape of the pirriforma fossa, the hight of the larynx, the pharyngeal wall, the epiglottis and the arytenoid/cuneiform complex.
Not only did we look at what was changing between using the mode and the mode with arytenoid rattle, we also looked at what was actually vibrating.
To get a better understanding of the laryngeal changes associated with arytenoid rattle and to examine the interaction of supraglottic vibration during intentional arytenoid rattle and vocal fold vibration.
We gave the various parts in the vocal tract levels in order to identify and specify on which levels the various changes take place. The levels also make it easier to communicate where the changes take place. On the stills from the footage only the first 3-4 levels are seen. For more info on the level, click here.
When we look at the still examples of the mode with and without arytenoid rattle. All used cuneiforms or mucosa over cuneiforms to vibrate either freely, against each other or against epiglottis. There was evidence on endoscopy or from the Laryngograph of periodic vocal fold vibration.
Arytenoid rattle can be done safely.
Notice that the waveform of the vocal mode is maintained during the arytenoid rattle. This indicates that the vibrations of the vocal folds are unhindered and unaffected by the arytenoid rattle. So the vocal folds are vibrating freely under the arytenoid rattle. This makes sense because the we know that the arytenoid rattle is taking place higher in the vocal tract and not on the 1st level (the level of the vocal folds).
In all the examples where we can see the vocal folds, or look at the laryngograph trace, there seems to be a resonably regular pattern, and there didn’t appear to be any evidence of the effect (or any additional noises) being produced in the vocal fold level.
There was evidence on endoscopy or from the Laryngograph of periodic vocal fold vibration.
It need a good technique to ensure accurate vocal mode setting done correctly and an intentional application of the effect.
This information comes from a study effects with the title ‘Can vocal effects such as distortion, growling, rattle and grunting and be produced without traumatising the vocal folds?’. This study was presented by Julian McGlashan at PEVOC7 conference in Groningen, Netherlands, 2007.
This study with the title ‘Analysis of the mechanism of effects such as Distortion, Growl, Grunt and Rattle used in a healthy way by 18 professional singers’. was presented by Cathrine Sadolin at Pevoc 10 (Pan-European Voice Conference) Prague, Czeck Republic, August, 2013.