An effect: Grunting has a dark, powerful sound; it is often low in pitch and has a very demonic effect. It is unfortunately and confusingly called ‘growling’ by some but the mechanism of production and the sound character is different. Grunting is generally produced by large amplitude vibration of the vocal folds and supraglottic mucosa. It can be used with a a large glottal gap which casues the breathy aspect to the sound, but then the volume is decreased. More details to follow.